2.1 Basis of preparation
The consolidated financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS"s) as adopted for use in the European Union and IFRIC interpretations issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ("IASB") and the Companies Act 2006. The Company financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Financial Reporting Standard 101 'Reduced disclosure framework' (FRS 101).
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis and prepared on the historical cost basis except that the following assets and liabilities are stated at their fair value: financial instruments classified as fair value through the profit or loss.
The consolidated financial statements are presented in sterling and have been rounded to the nearest thousand (£000). The functional currency of the Company is sterling.
The preparation of financial information in conformity with IFRS requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Although these estimates are based on management's best knowledge of the amount, event or actions, actual events ultimately may differ from those estimates.
The accounting policies set out below have, unless otherwise stated, been applied consistently to all periods presented in the consolidated financial statements.
2.2 Going concern
These financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis. The Directors have prepared cash flow projections and are satisfied that the Group has adequate resources to continue in operational existence for the foreseeable future. The Group's forecasts and projections, which take into account reasonably possible changes in trading performance, show that the Group will be able to operate within the level of its current facilities. Included in the forecasts and projections are cash inflows from the placing of new ordinary shares on 15 March 2018 and 4 April 2018; see note 32 for further details. Current banking facilities are detailed in note 18; these were renegotiated in March 2018 and are due for renewal in March 2021.
Accordingly, the Directors continue to adopt the going concern basis in preparing these financial statements.
2.3 Basis of consolidation
On 24 April 2014, the Company was incorporated under the name Flowtech Fluidpower Limited. On 7 May 2014, Flowtech Fluidpower Limited acquired the entire issued share capital of Fluidpower Shared Services (formerly Flowtech Holdings Limited) via a share for share exchange with the shareholders of Fluidpower Shared Services Limited. On 7 May 2014, Flowtech Fluidpower Limited was re-registered as a public limited company with the name Flowtech Fluidpower plc. Following the share for share exchange referred to above, Flowtech Fluidpower plc became the ultimate legal parent of the Group.
In the absence of an IFRS which specifically deals with similar transactions, management judge it appropriate to refer to other similar accounting frameworks for guidance in developing an accounting policy that is relevant and reliable. The Directors consider the share for share exchange transaction to be a group reconstruction rather than a business combination in the context of IFRS 3 (revised), 'Business Combinations', which has been accounted for using merger accounting principles. Therefore, although the share for share exchange did not occur until 7 May 2014, the consolidated financial statements of Flowtech Fluidpower plc are presented as if the Flowtech Group of companies had always been part of the same group.
Accordingly, the following accounting treatment was applied in respect of the share for share exchange:
- The assets and liabilities of Fluidpower Shared Services Limited and its subsidiaries were recognised in the consolidated financial statements at the pre-combination carrying amounts, without restatement to fair value
- The retained losses and other equity balances recognised in the consolidated financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2013 reflect the retained losses and other equity balances of Fluidpower Shared Services Limited and its subsidiaries recorded before the share for share exchange. However, the equity structure (share capital and share premium balances) shown in the consolidated financial statements reflects the equity structure of the legal parent (Flowtech Fluidpower plc), including the equity instruments issued under the share for share exchange. The resulting difference between the parent's capital and the acquired Group's capital has been recognised as a component of equity being the 'merger reserve'
The Company had no significant assets, liabilities or contingent liabilities of its own at the time of the share for share exchange and no such consideration was paid.
The Group's financial statements consolidate those of the Parent Company and all of its subsidiaries as of 31 December 2017. The Parent controls a subsidiary if it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the subsidiary and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the subsidiary. All subsidiaries have a reporting date of 31 December.
All transactions and balances between Group companies are eliminated on consolidation, including unrealised gains and losses on transactions between Group companies. Where unrealised losses on intra-group asset sales are reversed on consolidation, the underlying asset is also tested for impairment from a Group perspective. Amounts reported in the financial statements of subsidiaries have been adjusted where necessary to ensure consistency with the accounting policies adopted by the Group.
Profit or loss and other comprehensive income of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of during the year are recognised from the effective date of acquisition, or up to the effective date of disposal, as applicable.
2.4 Classification of financial instruments issued by the Group
Financial instruments issued by the Group are treated as equity only to the extent that they meet the following two conditions:
- they include no contractual obligations upon the Company (or Group as the case may be) to deliver cash or other financial assets or to exchange financial assets or financial liabilities with another party under conditions that are potentially unfavourable to the Company (or Group); and
- where the instrument will or may be settled in the Company's own equity instruments, it is either a non-derivative that includes no obligation to deliver a variable number of the Company's own equity instruments or is a derivative that will be settled by the Company's exchanging a fixed amount of cash or other financial assets for a fixed number of its own equity instruments.
To the extent that this definition is not met, the proceeds of issue are classified as a financial liability. Where the instrument so classified takes the legal form of the Company's own shares, the amounts presented in these financial statements for called up share capital and share premium account exclude amounts in relation to those shares.
2.5 Financial instruments
Non-derivative financial instruments comprise trade and other receivables, cash and cash equivalents, loans and borrowings, and trade and other payables.
Trade and other receivables
Trade and other receivables are recognised initially at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition they are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses.
Trade and other payables
Trade and other payables are recognised initially at fair value. Subsequent to initial recognition they are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash, bank balances net of bank overdrafts and short term deposits held with banks by the Group, and are subject to insignificant risk of changes in value. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of the Group's cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the cash flow statement only.
Interest-bearing borrowings are recognised initially at fair value less attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, interest-bearing borrowings are stated at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses. Any change in their value through impairment or reversal of impairment is recognised in profit or loss. Discounting is omitted where the effect is immaterial. Interest-bearing borrowings include invoice discounting facilities and stock loans. Cash flows on these items are treated net due to the large amounts, short maturities and the rapid turnover on cash receipts and cash payments.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments held by the Group include forward foreign currency contracts and are recognised at fair value. The gain or loss on remeasurement to fair value is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Derecognition of financial liabilities
The Group derecognises a financial liability (or its part) from the statement of financial position when, and only when it is extinguished, i.e. when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expires. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) extinguished and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in profit or loss.
2.6 Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.
Where parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items of property, plant and equipment.
Leases in which the Group assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the leased asset are classified as finance leases. Where land and buildings are held under leases the accounting treatment of the land is considered separately from that of the buildings. Leased assets acquired by way of finance lease are stated at an amount equal to the lower of their fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments at inception of the lease, less accumulated depreciation and less accumulated impairment losses. Lease payments are accounted for as described below.
Depreciation is charged to the income statement over the estimated useful lives of each part of an item of property, plant and equipment. Land is not depreciated. The estimated useful lives and depreciation methods are as follows:
Property 50 years – straight-line
Plant, machinery and equipment 3 to 20 years – straight-line
Motor vehicles 4 to 5 years – reducing balance
Depreciation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date.
2.7 Leased assets
Management apply judgement in considering the substance of a lease agreement and whether it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased asset. Key factors considered include the length of the lease term in relation to the economic life of the asset, the present value of the minimum lease payments in relation to the asset's fair value, and whether the Group obtains ownership at the end of the lease term.
See note 2.6 for the depreciation methods and useful lives for assets held under finance leases.
Minimum lease payments are apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Operating lease payments
An operating lease is defined as a lease in which substantially all of the risks and rewards incidental to ownership remain with the lessor. Payments made under operating leases are recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Lease incentives received are recognised in the income statement as an integral part of the total lease expense.
2.8 Business combinations
Subject to the transitional relief in IFRS 1 'First time adoption of IFRSs', all business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method. Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method as at the acquisition date, which is the date on which control is transferred to the Group.
Acquisitions prior to 1 January 2011 (date of transition to IFRSs)
IFRS 1 grants certain exemptions from the full requirements of Adopted IFRSs in the transition period. The Group elected not to restate business combinations that took place prior to 1 January 2011. In respect of acquisitions prior to 1 January 2011, goodwill is included at 1 January 2011 on the basis the amount recorded under UK GAAP.
Acquisitions after 1 January 2011
For acquisitions on or after 1 January 2011, the Group measures goodwill at the acquisition date as:
- the fair value of the consideration transferred; plus
- the recognised amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree; plus
- the fair value of the existing equity interest in the acquiree; less
- the fair value of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
When the excess is negative, a bargain purchase gain is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Costs related to the acquisition, other than those associated with the issue of debt or equity securities, are expensed as incurred and included in the separately disclosed 'acquisition costs' as part of administration expenses.
Any contingent consideration payable is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration are recognised in profit or loss.
2.9 Intangible assets
Goodwill is stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is allocated to operating segments and is not amortised but is tested annually for impairment, or earlier if there is an indication of impairment.
Intangible assets acquired as part of business combinations are capitalised at fair value at the date of acquisition. Following the initial recognition, the carrying amount of an intangible is its cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses. Amortisation is charged on the basis of the estimated useful life on a straight-line basis and the expense is taken to the income statement and included in the separately disclosed 'amortisation of acquired intangibles' as part of administration expenses (note 11).
The Group has recognised customer relationships and brand identity as separately identifiable acquired intangible assets. The useful economic life attributed to each intangible asset is determined at the time of the acquisition and ranges from five to ten years.
Impairment reviews are undertaken annually and whenever the Directors consider that there has been a potential indication of impairment.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value, after making allowance for obsolete and slow-moving items. Cost includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories and other costs in bringing them to their existing location and condition.
Financial assets (including receivables)
A financial asset not carried at fair value through profit or loss is assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is objective evidence that it is impaired. A financial asset is impaired if objective evidence indicates that a loss event has occurred after the initial recognition of the asset, and that the loss event had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset that can be estimated reliably.
An impairment loss in respect of a financial asset measured at amortised cost is calculated as the difference between its carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the asset's original effective interest rate. Interest on the impaired asset continues to be recognised through the unwinding of the discount. When a subsequent event causes the amount of impairment loss to decrease, the decrease in impairment loss is reversed through profit or loss.
The carrying amounts of the Group's non-financial assets, inventories and deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset's recoverable amount is estimated. For goodwill, and intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives or that are not yet available for use, the recoverable amount is estimated each year at the same time.
The recoverable amount of an asset or operating segment is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. For the purpose of impairment testing, assets that cannot be tested individually are grouped together by operating segments as defined in note 2.18. The goodwill acquired in a business combination, for the purpose of impairment testing, is also allocated to the relevant operating segment. Goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated to operating segments that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination and represent the lowest level within the Group at which management monitor the related goodwill.
An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or its operating segment exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the income statement. Impairment losses recognised in respect of operating segments are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the segments, and then to reduce the carrying amounts of the other assets in the segment on a pro rata basis.
An impairment loss in respect of goodwill is not reversed. In respect of other assets, impairment losses recognised in prior periods are assessed at each reporting date for any indications that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the asset's carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.
2.12 Employee benefits
Defined contribution plans
A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognised as an expense in the income statement in the periods during which services are rendered by employees.
2.13 Share-based payments
The Group issues equity-settled share-based payments to certain employees. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of the equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Group's estimate of shares that will eventually vest. Fair value is measured by use of the Black–Scholes model.
A provision is recognised in the statement of financial position when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event that can be reliably measured and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects risks specific to the liability.
Revenue is the total amount receivable by the Group for goods supplied, excluding VAT and discounts. Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised in the income statement when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, which is determined to be at the point of despatch.
Revenues from site installation projects under stage payment are recognised based upon the stage of completion of the related contracts.
2.16 Cost of sales
Cost of sales includes all costs incurred up to the point of despatch including operating expenses of the warehouse.
2.17 Distribution expenses
Distributions costs are costs directly relating to despatch of goods and indirect costs including advertising and other sales related expenses.
2.18 Operating segments
The Group comprises the following three operating segments which are defined by trading activity:
Flowtechnology — distribution and assembly of engineering components, principally to distributors and end users in the UK, Ireland and the Benelux.
Power Motion Control — based in the UK, Eire and the Benelux, distribution and assembly of engineering components and hydraulic systems to distributors and end users in the international market.
Process – distribution of engineering components to the process sector, principally in the UK.
The Board is considered to be the chief operating decision maker (CODM). The CODM manages the business using an underlying profit figure. Only finance income and costs secured on the assets of the operating segment are included in the segment results. Finance income and costs relating to loans held by the Company are not included in the segment result that is assessed by the CODM. Transfer prices between operating segments are on an arm's length basis.
2.19 Financing income and expenses
Financing expenses comprise interest payable and finance charges on finance leases recognised in profit or loss using the effective interest method. Financing income comprises interest receivable on funds invested. Interest income and interest payable is recognised in profit or loss as it accrues, using the effective interest method.
Tax on the profit or loss for the year comprises current and deferred tax. Tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised in other comprehensive income, in which case it is recognised in other comprehensive income.
Current tax is the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the reporting date, and any adjustment to tax payable in respect of previous years.
Deferred tax is provided on temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for taxation purposes. The following temporary differences are not provided for: the initial recognition of goodwill; the initial recognition of assets or liabilities that affect neither accounting nor taxable profit other than in a business combination; and differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that they will probably not reverse in the foreseeable future. The amount of deferred tax provided is based on the expected manner of realisation or settlement of the carrying amount of assets and liabilities, using tax rates enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
A deferred tax asset is recognised only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.
2.21 Adopted IFRS not yet applied
New standards and interpretations currently in issue (as at 28 February 2018) but not effective, for accounting periods commencing on 1 January 2017 are:
- IFRS 9 Financial Instruments (effective 1 January 2018)
- IFRS 14 Regulatory Deferral Accounts (IASB effective date 1 January 2016)*
- IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (effective 1 January 2018)
- IFRS 16 Leases (effective 1 January 2019)
- IFRS 17 Insurance contracts (effective 21 January 2021)*
- Amendments to IAS 12: Recognition of Deferred Tax Assets for Unrealised Losses (effective date 1 January 2017)*
- Amendments to IAS 7: Disclosure Initiative (effective date 1 January 2017)*
- Amendments to IAS 19: Plan Amendment, Curtailment or Settlement (effective date 1 January 2019)*
- Amendments to IAS 28: Long-term Interests in Associates and Joint Ventures (effective date 1 January 2019)*
- Amendments to IAS 40: Transfers of investment property (effective date 1 January 2018)*
- Amendments to IFRS 2: Classification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions (effective date 1 January 2018)*
- Amendments to IFRS 4: Applying IFRS 9 financial instruments with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts (effective date 1 January 2018)
- Amendments to IFRS 9: Prepayment features with negative compensation (effective date 1 January 2019)*
- Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2014-2016 Cycle – Relating to IFRS 1 First time adoption of IFRS and IAS 28 Investment in associates and joint ventures (effective date 1 January 2017)*
- Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2014-2016 Cycle – Relating to IFRS 12 Disclosure of interest in other entities (effective date 1 January 2019)*
- Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards 2015-2017 Cycle (issued on 12 December 2017)
- IFRIC Interpretation 22 Foreign currency transactions and advance considerations (effective date 1 January 2018)*
- IFRIC Interpretation 23 Uncertainty over Income Tax Treatments (effective date 1 January 2016)*
- Clarifications to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (effective date 1 January 2018)
* Not adopted by the EU (as at 28 February 2018)
The Group continues to monitor the potential impact of other new standards and interpretations which may be endorsed by the European Union and require adoption by the Group in future reporting periods.
IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments'
The new standard for financial instruments (IFRS 9) introduces extensive changes to IAS 39's guidance on the classification and measurement of financial assets and their impairment. IFRS 9 also provides new guidance on the application of hedge accounting. IFRS 9 is effective from periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Management are yet to fully assess the impact of the Standard and are therefore unable to provide quantified information, but at this point believe there will be minimal impact.
IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers'
IFRS 15 will replace IAS 18, IAS 11 and several revenue-related interpretations. The new standard establishes a control-based revenue recognition model and provides additional guidance in many areas not covered by existing IFRSs, including how to account for arrangements with multiple performance obligations, variable pricing, customer refund rights, supplier repurchase options and other common complexities.
IFRS 15 is effective from periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. The Group has design, build and install contracts which may have different performance obligations under IFRS 15. Management have started to review in detail the impact of the new Standard and preliminary investigations indicate that there will not be any material impact as the majority of contracts are for a short duration.
IFRS 16 'Leases'
IFRS 16 will replace IAS 17 and three related interpretations. It completes the IASB's long-running project to overhaul lease accounting. Leases will be recorded on the statement of financial position in the form of a right of use asset and a lease liability. Depreciation of the right of use asset will be recognised in the income statement on a straight-line basis, with interest recognised on the lease liability, This will result in a change to the profile of the net charge taken to the income statement over the life of the lease. These charges will replace the lease costs currently charged to the income statement.
IFRS 16 is effective from periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019. The Group is progressing well in analysing the implementation of IFRS16 and expects the most significant leases to relate to property and vehicles. The Group expects to apply the standard retrospectively with the cumulative effect of the initial application recognised on 1 January 2019. Under this approach the Group will not restate comparative periods. Management are yet to fully assess the impact of the Standard and is therefore unable to provide quantified information. The payment profile of current leases is disclosed in note 28.
2.22 Equity, reserves and dividend payments
Equity comprises the following:
- 'Share capital' represents the nominal value of equity shares
- 'Share premium' represents the excess over nominal value of consideration received for equity share net of expenses of the share issue, less any costs associated with the issuing of shares
- 'Other reserves' relate to the issue of share options for consideration in respect of acquisition of subsidiaries
- 'Share-based payment reserve' represents the provision made to date for share-based payments as detailed in note 2.13
- 'Shares owned by the EBT' represents shares in the Group purchased for the Employee Benefit Trust
- 'Merger reserve' represents the difference between the Parent's capital and the acquired Group's capital retained losses and other equity balances before and after the share for share exchange which created the Group
- 'Merger relief reserve' represents merger relief arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries for which some or all of the consideration was settled in shares
- 'Currency translation reserve' comprises all foreign exchange differences arising since 1 January 2011, arising from the translation of foreign operations
- 'Retained losses' represent retained losses of the Group
All transactions with owners of the Parent are recorded separately within equity.
Dividend distributions payable to equity Shareholders are included in other liabilities when the dividends have been approved in general meeting prior to the reporting date.
2.23 Discontinued operations
An operation is classed as discontinued when management have made the decision to either sell the operation or relocate the operation. Discontinued operation costs incurred in the prior year relate to surplus property costs.
2.24 Foreign currency translation
Functional and presentation currency
The consolidated financial statements are presented in sterling, which is also the functional currency of the Parent Company.
Foreign currency transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated to the respective functional currencies of Group entities at the foreign exchange rate ruling at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are retranslated to the functional currency at the foreign exchange rate ruling at that date. Foreign exchange differences arising on translation are recognised in the income statement. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies that are stated at fair value are retranslated to the functional currency at foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates the fair value was determined.
In the Group's financial statements, all assets, liabilities and transactions of Group entities with a functional currency other than sterling are translated into sterling upon consolidation. The functional currency of the entities in the Group has remained unchanged during the reporting period.
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations are translated to the Group's presentational currency, sterling, at foreign exchange rates ruling at the reporting date. The revenues and expenses of foreign operations are translated at an average rate for the year where this rate approximates to the foreign exchange rates ruling at the dates of the transactions.
Exchange differences arising from this translation of foreign operations are reported as an item of other comprehensive income and accumulated in the currency translation reserve. The Group has taken advantage of the relief available in IFRS 1 to deem the cumulative translation differences for all foreign operations to be zero at the date of transition to Adopted IFRSs (1 January 2011). On disposal of a foreign operation, the related cumulative translation differences recognised in equity are reclassified to profit or loss and are recognised as part of the gain or loss on disposal.
2.25 Significant judgements, key assumptions and estimates
In the process of applying the Group's accounting policies, which are described above, management have made judgements and estimations about the future that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.
The following judgements have the most significant effect on the financial statements.
Impairment of goodwill
The carrying value of goodwill must be assessed for impairment annually. This requires an estimation of the value in use of the operating segments to which goodwill is allocated. Value in use is dependent on estimations of future cash flows from the operating segment and the use of an appropriate discount rate to discount those cash flows to their present value. The carrying value of goodwill as at 31 December 2017 is £57,938,000 (2016: £47,927,000). Refer to note 10 for further detail. There was no impairment charge during the year.
Intangible assets (customer relationships and brand identity) have been acquired as part of the net assets of certain subsidiaries. These intangible assets were capitalised at their fair value at the date of acquisition. Determining the value of acquired intangibles required the calculation of estimated future cash flows expected to arise from the intangible assets at a suitable discount rate in order to calculate their present value. In addition, an estimate of the useful life of the intangible asset has to be made over the period in which the cash flows were expected to be generated. The carrying amount of the acquired intangibles at the reporting date was £7,430,000 (2016: £4,780,000). Refer to note 11 for further detail.
Provision for impairment of inventories
The carrying value of inventories as at 31 December 2017 is £24,333,000 (2016: £16,592,000) and included a provision against the inventories of £814,000 (2016: £931,000). During the year £329,000 (2016: £141,000) of the provision was utilised following the scrapping and sale of obsolete inventory. During the year a further provision of £212,000 (2016: £67,000) was made. The provision for impairment of inventories is based on sales trends for all inventory and management's estimation of recoverability. There is a risk that the provision will not match the inventories that ultimately prove to be impaired.
A number of accounting estimates and judgements are incorporated within the calculation of the charge to the income statement in respect of share-based payments. These are described in more detail in note 23.
2.26 Separately disclosed items
Separately disclosed items are those significant items which in management's judgement should be highlighted by virtue of their size or incidence to enable a full understanding of the Group's financial performance.
2.27 Investment in own shares
Own shares held by the Group's Employee Benefit Trust have been classified as deductions from Shareholders' funds.
2.28 Contingent consideration
Where acquisition consideration includes consideration contingent on performance outcomes being met, the consideration is valued at the acquisition date based on performance forecasts available at the time. Those forecasts are reviewed at the reporting date and the consideration revised where materially different.